The FLAMINGO simulations and their properties are listed below.

Hydrodynamical simulations

The first table below contain the hydrodynamical simulations in the set. The first four lines list the simulations that use the fiducial galaxy formation model and assume the fiducial cosmology, but use different volumes and resolutions. The remaining lines list the model variations, which all use a 1 Gpc box and intermediate resolution. The link after each simulation name gives the paper where the simulation was introducted. The columns list the simulation identifier (where m8, m9 and m10 indicate log10 of the mean baryonic particle mass and correspond to high, intermediate, and low resolution, respectively; absence of this part implies m9 resolution); the number of standard deviations by which the observed stellar masses are shifted before calibration, Δm*; the number of standard deviations by which the observed cluster gas fractions are shifted before calibration, Δfgas; the AGN feedback implementation (thermal or jets); the comoving box side length, L; the number of baryonic particles, Nb (which equals the number of CDM particles, NCDM; the number of neutrino particles, Nν; the initial mean baryonic particle mass, mg; the mean CDM particle mass, mCDM; the Plummer-equivalent comoving gravitational softening length, εcom; the maximum proper gravitational softening length, εprop; and the assumed cosmology which is specified table at the bottom of this page.

L1_m8 [1]00thermal136003200031.34 x 1087.06 x 10811.22.85D3A
L1_m9 [1]00thermal118003100031.07 x 1095.65 x 10922.35.70D3A
L1_m10 [1]00thermal1900350038.56 x 1094.52 x 101044.611.40D3A
L2p8_m9 [1]00thermal2.850403280031.07 x 1095.65 x 10922.35.70D3A
fgas+2σ [1]0+2thermal118003100031.07 x 1095.65 x 10922.35.70D3A
fgas-2σ [1]0-2thermal118003100031.07 x 1095.65 x 10922.35.70D3A
fgas-4σ [1]0-4thermal118003100031.07 x 1095.65 x 10922.35.70D3A
fgas-8σ [1]0-8thermal118003100031.07 x 1095.65 x 10922.35.70D3A
M*-1σ [1]-10thermal118003100031.07 x 1095.65 x 10922.35.70D3A
M*-1σ_fgas-4σ [1]-1-4thermal118003100031.07 x 1095.65 x 10922.35.70D3A
Jet [1]00jets118003100031.07 x 1095.65 x 10922.35.70D3A
Jet_fgas-4σ [1]0-4jets118003100031.07 x 1095.65 x 10922.35.70D3A
Planck [1]00thermal118003100031.07 x 1095.72 x 10922.35.70Planck
PlanckNu0p24Var [1]00thermal118003100031.06 x 1095.67 x 10922.35.70PlanckNu0p24Var
PlanckNu0p24Fix [1]00thermal118003100031.07 x 1095.62 x 10922.35.70PlanckNu0p24Fix
PlanckNu0p48Fix [2]00thermal118003100031.07 x 1095.62 x 10922.35.70PlanckNu0p48Fix
LS8 [1]00thermal118003100031.07 x 1095.65 x 10922.35.70LS8
PlanckDCDM12 [2]00thermal118003100031.07 x 1095.65 x 10922.35.70PlanckDCDM12
PlanckDCDM24 [2]00thermal118003100031.07 x 1095.65 x 10922.35.70PlanckDCDM24

Dark matter only simulations

The second table contains the gravity-only FLAMINGO simulations. Simulation L1_m9_ip_DMO is identical to L1_m9_DMO except that the phases in the initial conditions were inverted. Note that there are no hydrodynamical counterparts for L5p6_m10_DMO, PlanckNu0p12Var_DMO, L1_m9_ip_DMO, L11p2_m11_DMO, and FLAMINGO-10K.

L1_m8_DMO [1]136003200038.40 x 10811.22.85D3A
L1_m9_DMO [1]118003100036.72 x 10922.35.70D3A
L1_m10_DMO [1]1900350035.38 x 101044.611.40D3A
L2p8_m9_DMO [1]2.850403280036.72 x 10922.35.70D3A
L5p6_m10_DMO [1]5.650403280035.38 x 101044.611.40D3A
Planck_DMO [1]118003100036.78 x 10922.35.70Planck
PlanckNu0p12Var_DMO [1]118003100036.74 x 10922.35.70PlanckNu0p12Var
PlanckNu0p24Var_DMO [1]118003100036.73 x 10922.35.70PlanckNu0p24Var
PlanckNu0p24Fix_DMO [1]118003100036.68 x 10922.35.70PlanckNu0p24Fix
PlanckNu0p48Fix_DMO [2]118003100036.68 x 10922.35.70PlanckNu0p48Fix
LS8_DMO [1]118003100036.72 x 10922.35.70LS8
PlanckDCDM12_DMO [2]118003100036.72 x 10922.35.70PlanckDCDM12
PlanckDCDM24_DMO [2]118003100036.72 x 10922.35.70PlanckDCDM24
L1_m9_ip_DMO [1]118003100036.72 x 10922.35.70D3A
L11p2_m11_DMO [1]11.250403280034.30 x 101189.222.80D3A
FLAMINGO-10K [3]2.8100803560038.40 x 10811.22.85D3A


Finally, the table below lists the values of the cosmological parameters used in different simulations (Table 4 from Schaye et al. 2023, Table 1 from Elbers et al. 2024). The columns list the prefix used to indicate the cosmology in the simulation name (note that for brevity the prefix 'D3A' that indicates the fiducial cosmology is omitted from the simulation identifiers); the dimensionless Hubble constant, h; the total matter density parameter, Ωm; the dark energy density parameter, ΩΛ; the baryonic matter density parameter, Ωb; the sum of the particle masses of the neutrino species, ∑ mνc2; the amplitude of the primordial matter power spectrum, As; the power-law index of the primordial matter power spectrum, ns; the amplitude of the initial power spectrum parametrized as the r.m.s. mass density fluctuation in spheres of radius 8 h-1 Mpc extrapolated to z=0 using linear theory, σ8; the amplitude of the initial power spectrum parametrized as S8 ≡ σ8m/0.3)1/2; the neutrino matter density parameter, Ων ≅ ∑ mνc2/(93.14 h2 eV); the dark matter decay rate, Γ. Note that the values of the Hubble and density parameters are given at z=0.

NamehΩmΩΛΩb∑ mνc2Asnsσ8S8ΩνΓ (h/H0)
D3A0.6810.3060.6940.04860.06 eV2.099 x 10-90.9670.8070.8151.39 x 10-3-
Planck0.6730.3160.6840.04940.06 eV2.101 x 10-90.9660.8120.8331.42 x 10-3-
PlanckNu0p12Var0.6730.3160.6840.04960.12 eV2.113 x 10-90.9670.8000.8212.85 x 10-3-
PlanckNu0p24Var0.6620.3280.6720.05100.24 eV2.109 x 10-90.9680.7720.8075.87 x 10-3-
PlanckNu0p24Fix0.6730.3160.6840.04940.24 eV2.101 x 10-90.9660.7690.7895.69 x 10-3-
PlanckNu0p48Fix0.6730.3160.6840.04940.48 eV2.101 x 10-90.9660.7090.72811.4 x 10-3-
LS80.6820.3050.6950.04730.06 eV1.836 x 10-90.9650.7600.7661.39 x 10-3-
PlanckDCDM120.6730.2740.7260.04940.06 eV2.101 x 10-90.9660.7940.7591.42 x 10-30.12
PlanckDCDM240.6730.2390.7260.04940.06 eV2.101 x 10-90.9660.7770.6941.42 x 10-30.24


[1] The FLAMINGO project: cosmological hydrodynamical simulations for large-scale structure and galaxy cluster surveys (Schaye et al. 2023)

[2] The FLAMINGO project: the coupling between baryonic feedback and cosmology in light of the S8 tension (Elbers et al. 2024)

[3] A unified model for the clustering of quasars and galaxies at z≈6 (Pizzati et al. 2024)